Table of Contents

## How do I report a Kruskal-Wallis test?

@ Wenyan Xu, Kruskal-Wallis test results should be reported with an H statistic, degrees of freedom and the P value; thus H (3) = 8.17, P = . 013. Please note that the H and P are capitalized and italicized as required by most Referencing styles.

**How would you describe the Kruskal-Wallis test?**

The Kruskal-Wallis H test (sometimes also called the “one-way ANOVA on ranks”) is a rank-based nonparametric test that can be used to determine if there are statistically significant differences between two or more groups of an independent variable on a continuous or ordinal dependent variable.

**How do you write statistical results in APA?**

1. General tips for Reporting Statistics APA Style

- Use readable spacing, placing a space after commas, variables and mathematical symbols.
- Don’t state formulas for common statistics (e.g. variance, z-score).
- In general, round decimals to two places, with the exception of p-values (see p-values in the next section).

### How do I report my paired t-test results?

You will want to include three main things about the Paired Samples T-Test when communicating results to others.

- Test type and use. You want to tell your reader what type of analysis you conducted.
- Significant differences between conditions.
- Report your results in words that people can understand.

**What is a good t statistic value?**

Thus, the t-statistic measures how many standard errors the coefficient is away from zero. Generally, any t-value greater than +2 or less than – 2 is acceptable. The higher the t-value, the greater the confidence we have in the coefficient as a predictor.

**What p value tells us?**

The p-value, or probability value, tells you how likely it is that your data could have occurred under the null hypothesis. The p-value is a proportion: if your p-value is 0.05, that means that 5% of the time you would see a test statistic at least as extreme as the one you found if the null hypothesis was true.

#### What does the T Stat tell you in regression?

The t statistic is the coefficient divided by its standard error. Your regression software compares the t statistic on your variable with values in the Student’s t distribution to determine the P value, which is the number that you really need to be looking at.

**How do you interpret regression output?**

The sign of a regression coefficient tells you whether there is a positive or negative correlation between each independent variable the dependent variable. A positive coefficient indicates that as the value of the independent variable increases, the mean of the dependent variable also tends to increase.

**What does T Stat mean in Excel?**

This example teaches you how to perform a t-Test in Excel. The t-Test is used to test the null hypothesis that the means of two populations are equal. First, perform an F-Test to determine if the variances of the two populations are equal. …

## What is the P-value in Excel?

It’s a value that can be expressed in percentage or decimal to support or reject the null hypothesis. In Excel, the p-value is expressed in decimal. But in reporting, try to use the percentage form (multiply the decimal form by 100) as some people prefer hearing it that way like it’s a part of a whole.

**How do you find t Stat in Excel?**

Click on the “Data” menu, and then choose the “Data Analysis” tab. You will now see a window listing the various statistical tests that Excel can perform. Scroll down to find the t-test option and click “OK”.

**What is the paired t-test?**

A paired t-test is used when we are interested in the difference between two variables for the same subject. Often the two variables are separated by time. Since we are ultimately concerned with the difference between two measures in one sample, the paired t-test reduces to the one sample t-test.

### What is the null hypothesis for a paired t-test?

The null hypothesis is that the mean difference between paired observations is zero. When the mean difference is zero, the means of the two groups must also be equal. Because of the paired design of the data, the null hypothesis of a paired t–test is usually expressed in terms of the mean difference.

**What are the conditions for a paired t test?**

The paired sample t-test has four main assumptions:

- The dependent variable must be continuous (interval/ratio).
- The observations are independent of one another.
- The dependent variable should be approximately normally distributed.
- The dependent variable should not contain any outliers.

**How do you run a paired t test?**

Running the Test

- Click Analyze > Compare Means > Paired-Samples T Test.
- Select the variable English and move it to the Variable1 slot in the Paired Variables box. Then select the variable Math and move it to the Variable2 slot in the Paired Variables box.
- Click OK.

#### What is the null hypothesis for a 2 sample t test?

The default null hypothesis for a 2-sample t-test is that the two groups are equal. You can see in the equation that when the two groups are equal, the difference (and the entire ratio) also equals zero.

**What are the conditions for a 2 sample t-test?**

Two-sample t-test assumptions

- Data values must be independent.
- Data in each group must be obtained via a random sample from the population.
- Data in each group are normally distributed.
- Data values are continuous.
- The variances for the two independent groups are equal.

**How do you compare two-sample means?**

The four major ways of comparing means from data that is assumed to be normally distributed are:

- Independent Samples T-Test.
- One sample T-Test.
- Paired Samples T-Test.
- One way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA).

## How do you know if two samples are statistically different?

3.2 How to test for differences between samples

- Decide on a hypothesis to test, often called the “null hypothesis” (H0 ). In our case, the hypothesis is that there is no difference between sets of samples.
- Decide on a statistic to test the truth of the null hypothesis.
- Calculate the statistic.
- Compare it to a reference value to establish significance, the P-value.